I do not know if I can prove this. However, in 2003 I took several psychology classes at NIU and the professors shared what they were working on and what was in the forefront of discussion.
One of the biggest was Violence. Violence was going to be the next DSMV or DSMVI mental illness and personality disorder category to help fix.
The research at that point indicated several factors that led to violent tendencies in people as well as what physical factors lead to leadership.
A person was more likely to be violent if...
Males: They had YYX sydrome. They had high testosterone levels comparatively. Slightly lower serotonin levels of a peaceful leader, but not the lowest. They had an environment of violence as a developing child and teen and had no other options.
Studies at the time showed the importance of serotonin in the brain for selecting those for leadership. Chimps with lower serotonin levels tended not to be in leadership position. They also could change a chimps social level by adding serotonin so that it was higher than average for the group. The effect was remarkable.
Second, men prosecuted for violent crimes tended to have a higher percentage by population of YYX in their genes than the average population.
We know that higher testosterone is responsible for many characteristics in men and women, including less hair, more need and interest in sex, etc.
Testosterone it turned out was higher in men who tended to be aggressive than men who weren't. And estrogen in those men were also lower so that they had a higher ratio of testosterone to estrogen in their hormonal make up.
History of violence as a victim of it. We know that people can be trained towards violence otherwise, there would be no terrorism. However, the good news is, what can be trained can be untrained and redirected.
I don't know what the role of histamine plays in this, but certainly higher histamine levels combined with other environmental and physiological factors is not a good thing.
Just these facts alone tend to give a lot of hope for at risk people in their teens. A combination of mitigating medication to counter act high histamine levels, high testosterone levels, low serotonin levels, and maybe even some genetic splicing that would take out the extra Y, would drop the level of violence by possibly 25 percent to start with.
Retraining might be able to do the rest. The problem is feeling 'trapped' in a victimization role where often if you cannot beat them, join them is one of the problems. A means of getting out of the victim role is vital, and I don't mean by running from it (although, sometimes there is nothing else), but overcoming a 'pigeon hole' role in a group. Re-education and sensitivity training in the junior high schools and high schools could be a good idea. Not just 'not bullying' but an 'invitation' to identify with people of culturally acceptable behavior.
Anyway, good luck and may there be help in this area soon.
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